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9 Women on Ministry

Updated: Oct 14, 2021

Understand what the Bible actually says about Women in Ministry.



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Women in Ministry “The Blue parakeet” by Scot McKnight

First passage used against Women in Ministry

Chapter 14 concerns order in worship. “Everything is done properly and in order.”(vs 40) Woman to be silent is for order not to silence them forever - 1 Corinthians 14:34 35 “Women should be silent during the . It is not proper for them to speak. They church meetings should be submissive, just as the law says. If they have any questions, they should ask their husbands at home, for it is improper for women to speak in church meetings.

First passage used against Women in Ministry 1 Corinthians 14:34 during the church meetings . . . - Women in Ministry “The Blue parakeet” by Scot McKnight

First passage used against Women in Ministry Chapter 14 concerns order in worship. “Everything is done properly and in order.”(vs 40) 1 Corinthians 14:34 - 35 “Women should be silent during the church meetings. It is not proper for them to speak. They should be submissive, just as the law says. If they have any questions, they should ask their husbands at home, for it is improper for women to speak in church meetings.

1 Corinthians 14:34 - 35 “Women should be silent during the church meetings . . . Some suggest men were better educated than women and this female ignorance

was a disruption. Hence, “ask at home!” Learn before you speak — is the intent.

There was a gender revolution going on in the Roman Empire which makes this

advice relevant.

Petronius & Juvenal, contemporary with Paul, describe these woman as: 1. Immodest, sexually provocative with extravagant dress 2. Snatching the podium to address and teach the masses 3. Despising marriage, child bearing and child rearing* Caesar Augustus (63 BC - 14 AD) passed laws against the behaviour described above.

Women in Ministry: In 11:5 Paul recognizes that women are leading public worship. "But a woman dishonors her head if she prays or prophesies without a covering on her head, for this is the same as shaving her head.”

This is referring to public praying and prophesying.

Second passages used against Women in Ministry 1 Timothy 2:12 “I do not let women teach men or have authority over them. Let them listen quietly.” Context: Timothy is in Ephesus (1:3) Diana/Artemis worship is in Ephesus (Acts 19:35 37); Temple is world famous. Worship of a female goddess, with priestesses & eunuchs officiating. Paul does not want any resemblance to Diana worship with its sexual rites. 1 Timothy 2:11 “Women should learn quietly and submissively.” 1. Not as the New Roman Women 2. They are silent in order to learn — then they can speak. Not to be perpetually silent! 3. Same for 1 Corinthians 14:34 - 35

1 Timothy 2:15“But women will be saved through childbearing, assuming they continue to live in faith, love, holiness and modesty.” Paul is stating the exact opposite of the goals of the New Roman Woman! Women who bore children were not to be despised

Context of 1Timothy 2:11- 12 NLT

8 In every place of worship, I want men to pray with holy hands lifted up to God, free from anger and controversy. (Y/N/?) 9 And I want women to be modest in their appearance. (Y/N/?) They should wear decent and appropriate clothing and not draw attention to themselves by the way they fix their hair or by wearing gold or pearls or expensive clothes. (Y/N/?) 10 For women who claim to be devoted to God should make themselves attractive by the good things they do. (Y/N/?) 11 Women should learn quietly and submissively. 12 I do not let women teach men or have authority over them. Let them listen quietly. (Y/N/?) 13 For God made Adam first, and afterward he made Eve. 14 And it was not Adam who was deceived by Satan. The woman was deceived, and sin was the result. (Y/N/?) 15 But women will be saved through childbearing, assuming they continue to live in faith, love, holiness, and modesty. (Y/N/?)

Third passage used to silence women in ministry

"it (sin) desires to have you, but you must rule over it." Gen. 4:7b NIV

Your desire will be for your husband and will rule over you. Gn. 3:16 NIV


Parallel verses. Hebrew phraseology is almost identical. Sin wants to control you. Cain you must push back.

Eve wants to control you. Adam you must push back.

Eve and Submission Genesis 3:16 is NOT about submission and silence but about the conflict of wills which sin brings. When men silence women they exacerbate the conflict.

Evidence that Women were teaching men:

Acts 18:26 When Priscilla and Aquila heard Apollos preaching boldly in the synagogue, they took him aside and explained the way of God more accurately. (He only knew about John’s baptism according to vs 25)

1 Corinthians 11:5 But a woman dishonours her head if she prays or prophesies (teaches) without a covering on her head. (Context is public worship)

Evidence that Women were teaching men: Philippians 4:3 “And I ask you, my true partner (loyal Syzgus feminine) to help these two women (Syntyche and Euodia), for they worked hard with me in telling others the Good News. They worked with along with Clement and the rest of my co workers, whose names are written in the book of life. Acts 21:9 Philip the Evangelist had four unmarried daughters who had the gift of prophecy. 1 Corinthians 14:29 “Let two or three people (brothers and sisters) prophesy (teach), and let the others evaluate what is said.


Old Testament Women Leaders

Miriam is a powerful, popular leader. Belonged to leadership triumvirate with Moses & Aaron Miriam leads the worship after crossing the sea. Sing to the LORD, for he is highly exalted

Both horse and driver has he hurled into the sea. Exodus 15:21 Micah 6:4 She is Israel’s dancing queen. Miriam challenges Moses, not because she is a woman, but because she is powerful and can threaten his leadership. Miriam, not Aaron, gets leprosy indicating that she is the leader in the rebellion. (Numbers 12:1) Deborah is a Presidential Leader

The story reveals she is president, pope and Rambo in one body. (Judges 4, 5) Barak is her lackey. Jael her right hand! “Now Deborah, a prophet, the wife of Lappidoth , was leading Israel at the time.” (Judges 4:4)


Deborah’s ethos is perhaps best captured by “March on, my soul; be strong!” (Judges 5:21c) Esther Hello, the first Miss World that we know of. She is no Puritan being willing to participate in a sexual contest to find the next queen. She wins! Esther becomes a magnificent force for good. She uses all her considerable capabilities to save the exiled Jews in Persia from Haman’s genocidal plot to destroy them. The Jewish festival of Purim celebrates this deliverance. Huldah is a contemporary of Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk. When king Josiah is broken in repentance after the newly discovered Torah is read to him who does he consult? Not the male prophets who have written 5 books which are later included in the Old Testament but a woman. He consults Huldah! Huldah confirms the Torah is God’s word and advises repentance and reform. (2 Kings 22)

New Testament Women Leaders

Mary (mother of Messiah) Her influence is visible in the lives of Jesus & James Her song (The Magnificat) is masterful & Spirit filled

It is concerned about: justice for the poor; judgment on oppressors, holiness and God’s faithfulness. Clearly Jesus was concerned about these too. James starts his letter with the same concerns: (1:9) “Believers in humble circumstances ought to take pride in their high position. But the rich should take pride in their humiliation” Mary (mother of Messiah) How did Luke find the stories he tells in chapters 1-2? If Luke did not speak to Mary then it had to be someone who knew her story intimately. Luke gets the stories directly or indirectly from Mary! Junia

“Greet Andronicus and Junia my fellow Jews who have been in prison with me. They are outstandig among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was (Romans 16:7 NIV)

footnote: “esteemed among the apostles” (lost apostleship because she is female). Example of translator politics.

“Indeed how great the wisdom of this woman (Junia) must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle.” (St. Chrystom 349 - 407 AD)

The Saga of Junia


All early translators listed Junia as a woman unit Martin Luther's German New Testment (1522) where Junia becomes Junias - since he/she was an apostle. This translation is influential. Eberhard Nestle (1851 - 1931) produced the composite Greek New Testament. It was augment later by Kurt Aland (1951 - 1994) Used by most translators. This document had Junia until 1927 when suddenly she became the male. Junias is a footnote!

The United Bible Society Greek New Testament also has Junias. Thus both Composite Greek New Testaments had a gender change for Junia. RSV of 1946 replaces (masculine) but the NRSV has footnote. Junia Junia Junias with (feminine) with Junia Junias as a In 60 16 times. Often they have footnotes to give the alternative. Of the 44 usages of Some translations remove Andronicus and Julia as apostles and have them “well thought of” by the apostles. Patriarchy will assert itself even in pious translations. english translations Junia appears 44 times and Junias Junia she is an apostle 32 times.

New Testament Women Priscilla Usually listed before Aquila which is significant. They explained the gospel to Apollos (Acts 18:26) Priscilla was a theologian. She was a teacher of other evangelists. She is thus a co - worker with Paul and Aquila.

New Testament Women Phoebe “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church in receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of his people and to give her any help she may need of you, for she has been a benefactor or many people, Cenchreae . I ask you to including me. (Romans 16:1 - 2) Some scholars believe Phoebe carried Paul’s letter to Rome, read it there and answered questions on the letter. “Benefactor” includes but exceeds money. She supports the church in every way possible.

New Testament Women Phoebe She is not a deaconess but a deacon. Deaconess never used in NT. - They must be committed to the mystery of the faith In the same way, their wives(spouses) and must not slander others. They must exercise self She is a leader in ministry as found in 1Timothy 3:8 12. “8 In the same way, deacons must be well respected and have integrity. They must not be heavy drinkers or dishonest with money. now revealed and must live with a clear conscience. they are appointed as deacons, let them be closely examined. If they pass the test, then let them serve as deacons. 11 9 Before 10 must be respected and be faithful in everything they do. - control A deacon must be faithful to his wife (spouse), and he must 12 manage his children and household well.”

Pentecost is a New Creation by the Spirit - Acts 2:17 will pour out my Spirit upon 18 “In the last days,” God says, “I all people daughters will prophesy, Your young . Your sons and men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams. In those days I will pour out my Spirit even on my servants and they will prophesy.” men and women alike Pentecost is new symphony for the Believers. It is the announcement that race, age and gender divisions are over.

Pentecost is a New Creation by the Spirit Acts 2:17 will pour out my Spirit upon sons and 18 “In the last days,” God says, “I all people . . . - daughters will prophesy . . . men women alike and they will prophesy.” and Believers need to sing the song of Pentecost. The song of the Kingdom of Heaven: The divisions of race, age and gender are part of the Kingdom of this World but these divisions do not exist in the Kingdom of Heaven. Some suggest men were better educated than women and this female ignorance was a disruption. Hence, “ask at home!” Learn before you speak There was a gender revolution going on in the Roman Empire which makes this advice relevant. is the intent.

Petronius & Juvenal, contemporary with Paul, describe these woman as: 1. Immodest, sexually provocative with extravagant dress 2. Snatching the podium to address and teach the masses 3. Despising marriage, child bearing and child rearing* Caesar Augustus (63 BC against the behaviour described above. 14 AD) passed laws

Women in Ministry: In 11:5 Paul leading public worship. recongnizes that women are But a woman dishonors her head or prophesies without a covering on her head, for this is the same as shaving her head.” This is referring to public praying and prophesying. if she prays

Second passages used against Women in Ministry 1 Timothy 2:12 “I do not let women teach men or have authority over them. Let them listen quietly.” Context: Timothy is in Ephesus (1:3) Diana/Artemis worship is in Ephesus (Acts 19:35 37); Temple is world famous. Worship of a female goddess, with priestesses & eunuchs officiating. Paul does not want any resemblance to Diana worship with its sexual rites. -

Second passages used against Women in Ministry 1 Timothy 2:11 “Women should learn quietly and submissively.” 1. Not ape the New Roman Women 2. They are silent in order to learn — they can speak. Not to be perpetually then silent! 3. Same for 1 Corinthians 14:34 - 35

Second passages used against Women in Ministry 1 Timothy 2:15“But women will be saved through childbearing, assuming they continue to live in faith, love, holiness and modesty.” Paul is stating the exact opposite of the goals of the New Roman Woman! Women who bore children were not to be despised

Context of 1Timothy 2:11 8 In every place of worship, I want men to pray with holy hands lifted up to God, free from anger and controversy. (Y/N/?) 9 And I want women to be modest in their appearance. (Y/N/?) They should wear decent and appropriate clothing and not draw attention to themselves by the way they fix their hair or by wearing gold or pearls or expensive clothes. (Y/N/?) 10 For women who claim to be devoted to God should make themselves attractive by the good things they do. (Y/N/?) 11 Women should learn quietly and submissively. 12 I do not let women teach men or have authority over them. Let them listen quietly. (Y/N/?) 13 For God made Adam first, and afterward he made Eve. 14 And it was not Adam who was deceived by Satan. The woman was deceived, and sin was the result. (Y/N/?) 15 But women will be saved through childbearing, assuming they continue to live in faith, love, holiness, and modesty. (Y/N/?) - 12 NLT

Third passage used to silence women in ministry it and desires to have you .” (Genesis 4:7b NIV) , but Your desire will be for your husband, “it (sin) you must rule over he will rule over you .” (Genesis 3:16 NIV) Parallel verses. Hebrew phraseology is almost identical. Sin wants to control you. Cain you must push back. Eve wants to control you. Adam you must push back.

Eve and Submission Genesis 3:16 is NOT about submission and silence but about the conflict of wills which sin brings. When men silence women they exacerbate the conflict.

Evidence that Women were teaching men: Acts 18:26 When Priscilla and Aquila heard Apollos preaching boldly in the synagogue, they took him aside and explained the way of God more accurately. (He only knew about John’s baptism according to vs 25) 1 Corinthians 11:5 But a woman dishonours her head if she prays or prophesies (teaches) without a covering on her head. (Context is public worship)

Evidence that Women were teaching men: Philippians 4:3 “And I ask you, my true partner (loyal women ( worked hard with me in telling others the Syzgus Euodia feminine), to help these two and Syntyche worked along with Clement ), for they Good and the rest of my co are written in the Book of Life.” News.They - workers, whose names

Evidence that Women were teaching men: Acts 21:9 Philip the Evangelist had four unmarried daughters who had the gift of prophecy. 1 Corinthians 14:29 “Let two or three people (brothers and sisters) prophesy (teach), and let . the others evaluate what is said

Old Testament Women Leaders Miriam is a powerful, popular leader. Belonged to leadership triumvirate with Moses & Aaron Miriam leads the worship after crossing the sea. Sing to the LORD, for he is highly exalted Both horse and driver has he hurled into the sea. Exodus 15:21 Micah 6:4 She is Israel’s dancing queen.

Old Testament Women Leaders Miriam challenges Moses, not because she is a woman, but because she is powerful and can threaten his leadership. Miriam, not Aaron, gets leprosy indicating that she is the leader in the rebellion. (Numbers 12:1)

Old Testament Women Leaders Deborah is a Presidential Leader The story reveals she is president, pope and Rambo in one body. (Judges 4 5) Barak is her lackey. Jael her right hand! - “Now Deborah, a prophet, the wife of Deborah’s ethos is perhaps best captured by “March on, my soul; be strong!” (Judges 5:21c) , was leading Israel at the time.” (Judges 4:4) Lappidoth

Old Testament Women Leaders Esther Hello, the first Miss World that we know of. She is no Puritan being willing to participate in a sexual contest to find the next queen. She wins! Esther becomes a magnificent force for good. She uses all her considerable capabilities to save the exiled Jews in Persia from Haman’s genocidal plot to destroy them. The deliverance. Jewsih festival of Purim celebrates this

Old Testament Women Leaders Huldah is a contemporary of Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk. When king Josiah is broken in repentance after the newly discovered Torah is read to him who does he consult? Not the male prophets who have written 5 books which are later included in the Old Testament but a woman. He consults Huldah! Huldah confirms the Torah is God’s word and advises repentance and reform. (2 Kings 22)

New Testament Women Leaders Mary (mother of Messiah) Her influence is visible in the lives of Jesus & James Her song (The It is concerned about: justice for the poor; judgment on oppressors, holiness and God’s faithfulness. Clearly Jesus was concerned about these too. James starts his letter with the same concerns: (1:9) “Believers in humble circumstances ought to take pride in their high position. But the rich should take pride in their humiliation” Magnificat ) is masterful & Spirit filled

New Testament Women Leaders Mary (mother of Messiah) How did Luke find the stories he tells in chapters 1 If Luke did not speak to Mary then it had to be someone who knew her story intimately. Luke gets the stories directly or indirectly from Mary! - 2?

New Testament Women Leaders J footnote: “esteemed among the apostles” (lost apostleship because she is female). Example of translator politics. unia , my fellow Jews who have “Greet Andronicus and been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the Junia , and they were in Christ before I was (Romans 16:7 NIV) apostles “Indeed how great the wisdom of this woman ( )must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title Junia of apostle.” (St. Chrystom 349 - ) 407 AD

Junia Junia as a woman until Martin The Saga of All early translations listed Luther’s German New Testament (1522) where Junia Junia since she/he was an apostle. This becomes translation is influential. Junias Eberhard Nestle Greek New Testament. It was augment later by Kurt Aland (1851 - 1913) produced the composite (1915 Junia Junias - 1994). Used by most translators. This document had until 1927 when suddenly she became the male. is a footnote! The United Bible Society Greek New Testament also has Junia Junias Thus both Composite Greek New Testaments had a gender . change for .

The Saga of Junia RSV of 1946 replaces (masculine) but the NRSV has footnote. Junia Junia Junias with (feminine) with Junia Junias as a In 60 16 times. Often they have footnotes to give the alternative. Of the 44 usages of Some translations remove Andronicus and Julia as apostles and have them “well thought of” by the apostles. Patriarchy will assert itself even in pious translations. english translations Junia appears 44 times and Junias Junia she is an apostle 32 times.

New Testament Women Priscilla Usually listed before Aquila which is significant. They explained the gospel to Apollos (Acts 18:26) Priscilla was a theologian. She was a teacher of other evangelists. She is thus a co - worker with Paul and Aquila.

New Testament Women Phoebe “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church in receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of his people and to give her any help she may need of you, for she has been a benefactor or many people, Cenchreae . I ask you to including me. (Romans 16:1 - 2) Some scholars believe Phoebe carried Paul’s letter to Rome, read it there and answered questions on the letter. “Benefactor” includes but exceeds money. She supports the church in every way possible.

New Testament Women Phoebe She is not a deaconess but a deacon. Deaconess never used in NT. - They must be committed to the mystery of the faith In the same way, their wives(spouses) and must not slander others. They must exercise self She is a leader in ministry as found in 1Timothy 3:8 12. “8 In the same way, deacons must be well respected and have integrity. They must not be heavy drinkers or dishonest with money. now revealed and must live with a clear conscience. they are appointed as deacons, let them be closely examined. If they pass the test, then let them serve as deacons. 11 9 Before 10 must be respected and be faithful in everything they do. - control A deacon must be faithful to his wife (spouse), and he must 12 manage his children and household well.”

Pentecost is a New Creation by the Spirit - Acts 2:17 will pour out my Spirit upon 18 “In the last days,” God says, “I all people daughters will prophesy, Your young . Your sons and men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams. In those days I will pour out my Spirit even on my servants and they will prophesy.” men and women alike Pentecost is new symphony for the Believers. It is the announcement that race, age and gender divisions are over.

Pentecost is a New Creation by the Spirit Acts 2:17 will pour out my Spirit upon sons and 18 “In the last days,” God says, “I all people . . . - daughters will prophesy . . . men women alike and they will prophesy.” and Believers need to sing the song of Pentecost. The song of the Kingdom of Heaven: The divisions of race, age and gender are part of the Kingdom of this World but these divisions do not exist in the Kingdom of Heaven.

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